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Alat Pendeteksi Golongan Darah Manusia Berbasis Mikrokontroler 89S51
Abstrak

 Alat pendeteksi golongan darah manusia pada tulisan ini, dirancang untuk mengetahui golongan darah manusia secara otomatis menggunakan metode ABO. Adapun cara kerja alat adalah sample darah yang telah ditetesi ‘antisera’, dan ditempatkan pada preparat, oleh optoisolator dideteksi, kemudian data dari optoisolator dikirimkan ke mikrokontroler, yang telah diprogramkan untuk menentukan golongan. hasil dari mikrokontroler tersebut kemudian ditampilkan pada LCD. Dari ujicoba yang dilakukan, terhadap 8 sampel  darah, dapat dikatakan alat pendeteksi golongan darah tersebut dapat bekerja dengan baik dengan taraf kepercayaan 87.5%. 

 Kata Kunci: Golongan darah, metode ABO, optoisolator

 

Penulis : ANDIANI NANIEK , Dra., M.Kom [PDF File] didownload : 146 x

Medicines Price Ratio of Public Procurement Price of Generic Medicines In Indonesia
Abstrak

MEDICINES PRICE RATIO OF PUBLIC  PROCUREMENT PRICE  OF GENERIC MEDICINES IN INDONESIA 

  

Anggriani, Y.1, Mohamed Izham, M.I.2, Suryawati, S.3,  Budiarto, M.4, Shafie, A.A. 

1Faculty of Pharmacy Pancasila University , Jakarta , Indonesia

2Department of Pharmacy Practice, College of Pharmacy , Qatar University, Doha , Qatar

3Center for Clinical Pharmacology and Medicine Policy Studies,  Gadjah Mada University ,  Yogyakarta , Indonesia

4 National Institute Of Health Research and Development, Ministry of Health, Jakarta , Indonesia

5School Of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia

 

Medicine is an important part in health care systems. Approximately 20-60% of health costs in developing countries is used for medicines (WHO, 2004). Medicine is one of the factors that cause inefficiencies in  the health care service (WHO, 2010)Listen. Public access to medicines should be a concern for health providers either both government or private (Donald, 2001). The objective of the study is to evaluate medicines price ratios (MPRs) of the generic medicines of procurement prices in the public sector.  Read phonetically Dictionary

The study design was a cross-sectional survey of 6 District Health Offices from 3 provinces, 9 public hospitals from 4 provinces, and 7 health centers in Jakarta Provinces. Fifty medicines were surveyed: 14 global, 15 regional and 21 supplementary medicines. Procurement prices were surveyed in 2010. Only medicines which available at more than 4 facilities were analyzed. Outcome measures of this study is MPRs of generic medicines procurement price in public sectors. MPRs is the median local cost (in rupiah) divided by the median international reference price/IRP 2009 (converted to rupiah using the exchange rate on the first day of data collection). The MPRs results describe how much greater or smaller the local medicine price is to the international reference price. MPRs 3-4 means that the price in Indonesia is 3-4 times the IRP.  WHO and HAI consider an MPR ≤ 1 to indicate that procurement for the public sector is efficient. Larger price ratios are considered excessive (HAI & WHO, 2004).

36  generic medicines price were evaluated; 14 medicines were not evaluated due to unavailable at more than 4 facilities. The results of MPRs of the public procurement price of generic medicine were: MPRs <1 (11 items); MPRs >1-2 (20 items); MPRs > 2-3 (1 item); MPRs > 3-4 (3 items); MPRs > 5 (1 item).  Based on the WHO and HAI standards, the MPRs of the procurement price of medicines surveyed in Indonesia is still excessive and non-efficient.   

 

 

 

Key Words: Generic medicines, MPRs, procurement price,  public sector.

Penulis : YUSI ANGGRIANI , Dr, M.Kes, Apt. [PDF File] didownload : 40 x

THE IMPACT OF GENERIC MEDICINE PRICING POLICY ON AVAILABILITY AND PRICE OF GENERIC MEDICINES AT PUBLIC SECTORS IN INDONESIA
Abstrak

THE IMPACT OF GENERIC MEDICINE PRICING POLICY ON AVAILABILITY AND PRICE OF GENERIC MEDICINES   AT PUBLIC SECTORS IN INDONESIA

 

Anggriani, Y.1, Mohamed Izham, M.I.2, Suryawati, S.3,  Budiarto, M.4, Shafie, A.A. 

1Faculty of Pharmacy Pancasila University , Jakarta , Indonesia  

2Department of Pharmacy Practice, College of Pharmacy , Qatar University, Doha , Qatar

3Center for Clinical Pharmacology and Medicine Policy Studies,  Gadjah Mada University ,  Yogyakarta , Indonesia

4 National Institute Of Health Research and Development, Ministry of Health, Jakarta , Indonesia

5School Of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia

 

Industry and government price policies, national health policies, patent extensions, andproduction monopolies affect medicines prices (Olcay, 2005). To reduce medicines prices, regulations at different stages of the supply chain target wholesale prices, retail prices, taxes and reimbursement prices (Aaserud, 2006).  Between 2005 and 2010, the government of Indonesia has implemented five price policies setting the ceiling retail price for generic medicines in public sector pharmacies.  The impact of the generic price policies needs to be evaluated.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the generic medicines pricing policy on the price and availability of selected medicines in the public sector. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in 9  public hospitals and 70 health centers in 4 provinces in Indonesia in 2010. The survey targeted 50 medicines (14 from the WHO essential medicines list; 15 from the regional WHO medicines list and 21 highly relevant medicines in Indonesia). We assessed availability of these products in public retail pharmacies and compared retail prices to international wholesale reference prices (IRP) and the MoH’s ceiling prices in 2010. The outcome measures of this study were Medicine Price Ratios (MPRs; median retail price (in rupiah) divided by the median international reference price/IRP 2009; converted to rupiah using the exchange rate on the first day of data collection), availability, and the adherence to MoH’s ceiling price.   

 We assessed MPRs 33 items on the MOH list of medicines and for which common to all three lists and with IRP and price data were available.  : MPRs were as follows: MPRs <1(4 items); MPRs >1-2 (16 items); MPRs > 2-3 (6 items); MPRs > 3-4 (3 items); MPRs > 5 (4 items), indicating that most generic medicines prices in Indonesia were higher than IRP.   Most of the of medicines (55.9%) had higher prices than the MoH's ceiling price (between x% and y%);23.5% cost less than the MoH’s ceiling  price, and 20.6% did cost the MoH ceiling  price. The availability of eight medicines was very low  (available in<30% of pharmacies), for three medicines,  availability was low (30%-50%); 15 medicines, were fairly available (availability 50-80%), and 16 items was highly available (availability >80%).

 

 

Conclusions: Government price policies may not have had the intended effects of limiting retail prices in thet public sector.  It will be important to monitor impacts of price policies on price and utilization using longitudinal study designs

Penulis : YUSI ANGGRIANI , Dr, M.Kes, Apt. [PDF File] didownload : 34 x

Generic Medicine Pricing Policies Evaluation In Indonesia And The Impact On Availability And Medicine Price In Private Sector
Abstrak

Generic Medicine Pricing Policies Evaluation in Indonesia and the Impact on Availability and Medicine Price in Private Sectors

 

Anggriani, Yusi (1); Mohamed Ibrahim, Mohamed Izham (2); Suryawati, Sri (3); S Budiharto, Martuti (4); Akmal Shafie, Asrul (5)

yusi1777@yahoo.com

 

1: Faculty of Pharmacy Pancasila University, Indonesia, School of Pharmaceutical Science, University Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia; 2: Department of Pharmacy Practice, College of Pharmacy, Qassim University, Al Qassim, Saudi Arabia; 3: Center for Clinical Pharmacology and Medicine Policy Studies,  Gadjah Mada University,  Yogyakarta, Indonesia; 4: National Institute of Health Research and Development, Ministry of Health, Jakarta, Indonesia; 5: School of Pharmaceutical Science, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia

 

Problem statement: The government of Indonesia has given a political commitment to the provision of affordable medicines. Pricing policies on generic medicines that have been implemented by MoH need to be evaluated.

Objectives: To evaluate generic medicines price policies and the impact on the price and availability of selected medicines in private sectors

Design: Policy evaluation, cross-sectional study

Setting: Survey was conducted in 52 private pharmacies from 4 provinces in Indonesia.

Study population: Five generic medicine price policies from the period 2005–10 and 50 medicines (14 global, 15 regional, and 21 supplementary) were evaluated.

Policies: Medicine price policy in Indonesia set maximum prices for generic medicine for procurement and retail. Public sectors procurement price must comply with the policy. Retail price of private sector cannot be more than maximum price.

Outcome measure(s): Number of items in price policy, trend of MoH generic medicine price, comparison of generic medicines price at private pharmacies with MoH maximum price, MPRs of latest MoH procurement price, MPRs and availability of generic medicine in private sectors. The 2009 International Reference Price (IRP) was used to compare MoH procurement price and retail price.

Results: Only 42 generic medicines price were evaluated; 8 global and regional medicines were not on the MoH list. 153 medicines were regulated in 2005 price policy. From 2006 to 2010, items on the policy nearly tripled over the number on the 2005 list. There were 387, 458, 455, and 453 items in 2006, 2006 2008, and 2010, respectively. The trend of generic medicine prices showed that the highest medicine prices were in 2005. After the 2006 policies were enacted, most generic medicine prices decreased significantly from 2005 MoH prices. The changes in prices in 2006 were based on HAI and WHO survey recommendations in Indonesia on 2005. Two years after prices decreased, a new price policy was implemented in 2008. When comparing 2006 and 2008 MoH prices, 32 items did not change, 6 items increased, and 4 items decreased. When comparing current (2010) policy with 2008 price, 33 items did not change, 6 items decreased, 3 items increased. Of 42 items, only 36 items were calculated for MPRs, 6 items were not in IRP 2009. 25 items’ MPRs of MoH procurement price were >IRP, and 9 items MoH procurement price were <IRP. Most of medicine prices in the private sector were more than the MoH maximum price; only 2 items had MPRs <IRP and 34 items had MPRs >IRP. The availability of 42 medicines was very low for 11 items (26.2%), low for 5 items (11,9%), fairly high for 15 items (35,7%), and high for 11 items (26,2%).

Conclusions: MoH generic medicine prices 2005–10 tend to decrease. MPRs of MoH procurement prices were higher than IRP 2009. Most of retail prices in the private sector exceeded MoH maximum price. At private sector facilities, generic medicine prices in Indonesia are still expensive, and availability is still a problem.

 

Funding source(s): The Ministry of Education of Indonesia

Penulis : YUSI ANGGRIANI , Dr, M.Kes, Apt. [PDF File] didownload : 36 x

Evaluasi Penggunaan dan Biaya Obat Antihipertensi pada Pasien Hipertensi Rawat Inap di IRNA-B Rumah Sakit Umum Pusat X Periode Juli-Desember 2010
Abstrak

HIPERTENSI RAWAT INAP DI IRNA-B RUMAH SAKIT UMUM PUSAT X PERIODE JULI-DESEMBER 2010 

 

Yusi Anggriani1, Agus Purwanggana2, Ahmad Subhan3, Ria Puspita Wardhani4

124, Fakultas Farmasi Universitas Pancasila, 3Rumah Sakit Umum Pusat X Jakarta.

 

Abstrak: Ketepatan penggunaan antihipertensi masih perlu memegang peranan penting dalam keberhasilan pengobatan. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengetahui kesesuaian penggunaan obat antihipertensi dan mengetahui biaya obat pada pasien Umum, Askes dan Jamkesmas rawat inap di IRNA-B RSUP X. Penelitian bersifat deskriptif analitis dan dilakukan secara retrospektif dengan kriteria inklusi pasien hipertensi primer dan dengan penyakit penyerta (Hypertensive Hearth Disease dengan dan tanpa Congestive Hearth Failure dan Hypertensive Renal Disease dengan Renal Failure) di rawat inap IRNA-B RSUP X. Evaluasi ketepatan dosis antihipertensi sebesar 87,0%.  Obat di luar formularium cukup tinggi yaitu sebesar 39,3%. Biaya obat antihipertensi per item yang paling rendah adalah untuk pasien Askes. Kesimpulan penggunaan obat antihipertensi pada pasien hipertensi rawat inap di IRNA-B RSUP X masih terdapat ketidaksesuaian dengan Standar Formularium RSUP X tahun 2007 untuk penyakit hipertensi. Terdapat perbedaan biaya obat antihipertensi pada pasien Askes dengan Umum maupun Askes dengan Jamkesmas. Tidak terdapat perbedaan biaya obat antihipertensi yang dikeluarkan pada pasien Umum dengan Jamkesmas.

 

Kata kunci: evaluasi, penggunaan obat, biaya obat, hipertensi, Rumah Sakit Umum Pusat X.

Penulis : YUSI ANGGRIANI , Dr, M.Kes, Apt. [PDF File] didownload : 44 x

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