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Publikasi Penelitian Dosen

Simulasi Antrean Pelayanan Tunggal Menggunakan Bahasa C++
Abstrak

Antrean dengan pelayanan tunggal dalam waktu tertentu sering terjadi. Pada tulisan ini dibahas tentang  algoritma  suatu antrean tunggal yang di simulasikan dengan menggunakan bahasa C++. Adapun pada simulasi ini dapat memberikan laporan output waktu rata-rata antar kedatangan, waktu pelayanan, waktu akhir pelayanan, average delay anteran, average number antrean, server utilization, dan lama simulasi berlangsung. 

Kata kunci: antrean pelayanan tunggal, algoritma, simulasi C++

 

 

Penulis : ANDIANI NANIEK , Dra., M.Kom [PDF File] didownload : 144 x

Model Dinamika Pada Sistem Pengereman Mobil
Abstrak
Tulisan ini menguraikan tentang persamaan dinamika dari suatu sistem pengereman mobil. Adapun masukan yang diberikan berupa sudut pergeseran pedal rem, sedangkan untuk keluaran berupa gaya (F) yang menggerakan caliper yang mengaktifkan disk untuk pengereman pada mobil. Sehingga didapatkan komponen yang baik, dan sistem pengereman dapat bekerja secara optimal.
Kata kunci: Pengereman, persamaan dinamika, gain sistem pengereman. 
Penulis : ANDIANI NANIEK , Dra., M.Kom [PDF File] didownload : 155 x

Alat Pendeteksi Golongan Darah Manusia Berbasis Mikrokontroler 89S51
Abstrak

 Alat pendeteksi golongan darah manusia pada tulisan ini, dirancang untuk mengetahui golongan darah manusia secara otomatis menggunakan metode ABO. Adapun cara kerja alat adalah sample darah yang telah ditetesi ‘antisera’, dan ditempatkan pada preparat, oleh optoisolator dideteksi, kemudian data dari optoisolator dikirimkan ke mikrokontroler, yang telah diprogramkan untuk menentukan golongan. hasil dari mikrokontroler tersebut kemudian ditampilkan pada LCD. Dari ujicoba yang dilakukan, terhadap 8 sampel  darah, dapat dikatakan alat pendeteksi golongan darah tersebut dapat bekerja dengan baik dengan taraf kepercayaan 87.5%. 

 Kata Kunci: Golongan darah, metode ABO, optoisolator

 

Penulis : ANDIANI NANIEK , Dra., M.Kom [PDF File] didownload : 147 x

Medicines Price Ratio of Public Procurement Price of Generic Medicines In Indonesia
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MEDICINES PRICE RATIO OF PUBLIC  PROCUREMENT PRICE  OF GENERIC MEDICINES IN INDONESIA 

  

Anggriani, Y.1, Mohamed Izham, M.I.2, Suryawati, S.3,  Budiarto, M.4, Shafie, A.A. 

1Faculty of Pharmacy Pancasila University , Jakarta , Indonesia

2Department of Pharmacy Practice, College of Pharmacy , Qatar University, Doha , Qatar

3Center for Clinical Pharmacology and Medicine Policy Studies,  Gadjah Mada University ,  Yogyakarta , Indonesia

4 National Institute Of Health Research and Development, Ministry of Health, Jakarta , Indonesia

5School Of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia

 

Medicine is an important part in health care systems. Approximately 20-60% of health costs in developing countries is used for medicines (WHO, 2004). Medicine is one of the factors that cause inefficiencies in  the health care service (WHO, 2010)Listen. Public access to medicines should be a concern for health providers either both government or private (Donald, 2001). The objective of the study is to evaluate medicines price ratios (MPRs) of the generic medicines of procurement prices in the public sector.  Read phonetically Dictionary

The study design was a cross-sectional survey of 6 District Health Offices from 3 provinces, 9 public hospitals from 4 provinces, and 7 health centers in Jakarta Provinces. Fifty medicines were surveyed: 14 global, 15 regional and 21 supplementary medicines. Procurement prices were surveyed in 2010. Only medicines which available at more than 4 facilities were analyzed. Outcome measures of this study is MPRs of generic medicines procurement price in public sectors. MPRs is the median local cost (in rupiah) divided by the median international reference price/IRP 2009 (converted to rupiah using the exchange rate on the first day of data collection). The MPRs results describe how much greater or smaller the local medicine price is to the international reference price. MPRs 3-4 means that the price in Indonesia is 3-4 times the IRP.  WHO and HAI consider an MPR ≤ 1 to indicate that procurement for the public sector is efficient. Larger price ratios are considered excessive (HAI & WHO, 2004).

36  generic medicines price were evaluated; 14 medicines were not evaluated due to unavailable at more than 4 facilities. The results of MPRs of the public procurement price of generic medicine were: MPRs <1 (11 items); MPRs >1-2 (20 items); MPRs > 2-3 (1 item); MPRs > 3-4 (3 items); MPRs > 5 (1 item).  Based on the WHO and HAI standards, the MPRs of the procurement price of medicines surveyed in Indonesia is still excessive and non-efficient.   

 

 

 

Key Words: Generic medicines, MPRs, procurement price,  public sector.

Penulis : YUSI ANGGRIANI , Dr, M.Kes, Apt. [PDF File] didownload : 41 x

THE IMPACT OF GENERIC MEDICINE PRICING POLICY ON AVAILABILITY AND PRICE OF GENERIC MEDICINES AT PUBLIC SECTORS IN INDONESIA
Abstrak

THE IMPACT OF GENERIC MEDICINE PRICING POLICY ON AVAILABILITY AND PRICE OF GENERIC MEDICINES   AT PUBLIC SECTORS IN INDONESIA

 

Anggriani, Y.1, Mohamed Izham, M.I.2, Suryawati, S.3,  Budiarto, M.4, Shafie, A.A. 

1Faculty of Pharmacy Pancasila University , Jakarta , Indonesia  

2Department of Pharmacy Practice, College of Pharmacy , Qatar University, Doha , Qatar

3Center for Clinical Pharmacology and Medicine Policy Studies,  Gadjah Mada University ,  Yogyakarta , Indonesia

4 National Institute Of Health Research and Development, Ministry of Health, Jakarta , Indonesia

5School Of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia

 

Industry and government price policies, national health policies, patent extensions, andproduction monopolies affect medicines prices (Olcay, 2005). To reduce medicines prices, regulations at different stages of the supply chain target wholesale prices, retail prices, taxes and reimbursement prices (Aaserud, 2006).  Between 2005 and 2010, the government of Indonesia has implemented five price policies setting the ceiling retail price for generic medicines in public sector pharmacies.  The impact of the generic price policies needs to be evaluated.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the generic medicines pricing policy on the price and availability of selected medicines in the public sector. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in 9  public hospitals and 70 health centers in 4 provinces in Indonesia in 2010. The survey targeted 50 medicines (14 from the WHO essential medicines list; 15 from the regional WHO medicines list and 21 highly relevant medicines in Indonesia). We assessed availability of these products in public retail pharmacies and compared retail prices to international wholesale reference prices (IRP) and the MoH’s ceiling prices in 2010. The outcome measures of this study were Medicine Price Ratios (MPRs; median retail price (in rupiah) divided by the median international reference price/IRP 2009; converted to rupiah using the exchange rate on the first day of data collection), availability, and the adherence to MoH’s ceiling price.   

 We assessed MPRs 33 items on the MOH list of medicines and for which common to all three lists and with IRP and price data were available.  : MPRs were as follows: MPRs <1(4 items); MPRs >1-2 (16 items); MPRs > 2-3 (6 items); MPRs > 3-4 (3 items); MPRs > 5 (4 items), indicating that most generic medicines prices in Indonesia were higher than IRP.   Most of the of medicines (55.9%) had higher prices than the MoH's ceiling price (between x% and y%);23.5% cost less than the MoH’s ceiling  price, and 20.6% did cost the MoH ceiling  price. The availability of eight medicines was very low  (available in<30% of pharmacies), for three medicines,  availability was low (30%-50%); 15 medicines, were fairly available (availability 50-80%), and 16 items was highly available (availability >80%).

 

 

Conclusions: Government price policies may not have had the intended effects of limiting retail prices in thet public sector.  It will be important to monitor impacts of price policies on price and utilization using longitudinal study designs

Penulis : YUSI ANGGRIANI , Dr, M.Kes, Apt. [PDF File] didownload : 35 x

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